Halton iterative partitioning : spatially balanced sampling via partitioning


Robertson, McDonald, Price et al.


June 1, 2018


Robertson, B. L., T. L. McDonald, C. Price, and J. Brown (2018). “Halton iterative partitioning : spatially balanced sampling via partitioning”. In: Environmental and Ecological Statistics 25, pp. 305-323. ISSN: 1573-3009. DOI: 10.1007/s10651-018-0406-6. URL: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10651-018-0406-6.


BAS, Environmental sampling, Halton sequence, bas, environmental sampling, halton sequence, over-sampling


A new spatially balanced sampling design for environmental surveys is introduced, called Halton iterative partitioning (HIP). The design draws sample locations that are well spread over the study area. Spatially balanced designs are known to be efficient when surveying natural resources because nearby locations tend to be similar. The HIP design uses structural properties of the Halton sequence to partition a resource into nested boxes. Sample locations are then drawn from specific boxes in the partition to ensure spatial diversity. The method is conceptually simple and computationally efficient, draws spatially balanced samples in two or more dimensions and uses standard design-based estimators. Furthermore, HIP samples have an implicit ordering that can be used to define spatially balanced over-samples. This feature is particularly useful when sampling natural resources because we can dynamically add spatially balanced units from the over-sample to the sample as non-target or inaccessible units are discovered. We use several populations to show that HIP sampling draws spatially balanced samples and gives precise estimates of population totals.